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Sustainable Mobility: From Technological Innovation to Societal Learning

This paper addresses a persistent and worsening societal dilemma worldwide: the ecological unsustainability of the automobile as the primary means for providing personal mobility. The solution to this problem will require input from all segments of society and must include technological innovation; changes in the physical infrastructure and land use; and social, cultural, and institutional changes. This paper argues for a fundamental rethinking of the entire system of personal mobility and lays out some of the necessary steps forward.

Originally published in Journal of Cleaner Production 15, no. 11-12 (2007): 1104-1115, available at